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Coffee is a beverage that is commonly used all over the world. Coffee is prepared from the roasted seeds, normally known as beans of the coffee plants. Coffee was first used in the early 9th century, when it emerged in the highlands of Ethiopia. Coffee swell up to Egypt and Yemen and by the 15th century had reached Persia, Turkey, and northern Africa after the Ethiopia. After the Muslim countries coffee went to Italy, then to the other areas of Europe and America. The two most commonly available types of the coffee plant are Coffea canephora and C. arabica, which are grown in Latin America, Southeast Asia, and Africa. The coffee seeds are carefully roasted at temperatures around 200°C (392°F), during which the sugars in the bean caramelize, the bean changes color, and flavor develops. The coffee beans are roasted according to the desired flavor. Coffee beans are ground and brewed to make the beverage coffee.

Coffee’s role in different societies is very significant throughout the history. Coffee is used in holy ceremonies in Africa and Yemen. Coffee was prohibited in Ottoman Turkey in the 17th century. Today, trade in coffee has a huge economic value. Coffee is one of the world’s significant main commodities; in 2003, coffee was the world’s sixth-largest legal agricultural export in value. The health effects of coffee are uncertain, and lots of studies have observed the relationship between coffee consumption and certain medical conditions. Studies have recommended that the consumption of coffee lowers the risk of certain diseases but may have harmful effects as well, particularly when excessive. The Coffee plant belongs to a type of ten species of flowering plants of the family Rubiaceae. It is an evergreen plant or small tree that may grow up to 5 meters (16.40 ft) tall when unpruned.

The typical way of cultivating coffee is to put 20 seeds in each hole at the start of the rainy season; half are eliminated naturally. Coffee is often cultivated with food crops, such as corn, beans, or rice, during the first few years. There are two major cultivated kinds of the coffee plant, Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica. Some are concerned about obvious environmental matters with coffee cultivation. Originally, coffee farming was done in the shade of trees, which provided habitation for lots of animals and bugs. Increased use of fertilizer and pesticides and clearing of trees is necessary for sun cultivation. Coffee berries and their seeds go through multi-step processing before they become the roasted coffee with which most Western consumers are well-known. During roasting, caramelization takes place as the strong heat breaks down starches in the bean, changing them to simple sugars which initiate to brown, adding color to the bean.